History of Computers

In broad outline the history of computers for the du-generation history of the development of the computer before the year 1940 and the history of the development after the year 1940 computer

Before the year 1940

Computer history when humans began to do the calculations in life. Started manually by using the fingers, and then created a tool that can be used abacus to do calculations. After that in the year 1617, John Napier raised logarithms, and the tool named Napier bones. Napier bones can be used to perform various calculations the numbers. And after that in the year 1642 Bliase Pascal created the first mechanical calculating machine that can operate in a way to move a gear on the wheel that later developed by William Leibnitz. In 1816 Charles Babbage built a machine that can be used to solve complex mathematical problems such as mechanical logarithmic exactly up to twenty digits.

The machine has also been equipped with facilities "card / card" as an input, to store "files" data, perform calculations automatically and remove outpun in printed form on paper. Facilities "Card" was first used as a predictive tool in the development of textile industry in the automatic loom invented by Joseph Jecquard in the year 1801. And after that the use of "card" in populerkan by Herman Hoolerith as a data input device that has been widely used by U.S. residents in 1887. By using the "card" then the problem of trigonometric functions can be solved easily.

Development of Computer After 1940


  • ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator)
In the year 1946 Dr. John Mauchly and Eckert Presper created with the name of ENIAC computer, ENIAC consisted of 70,000 resistors, point 5 million soldiers and 18,000 vacuum tubes, these computers have a very large size and consumes power of 160,000 watts, the ENIAC computer era is versatile computer or general-purpose computer that can work 1000 times faster dibandingkand ith the computer Mark I.
  • EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer)
Allowed all computer functions to be coordinated through a single source.

In 1945 Von Neumann designed the Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer (EDVAC) with a memory that can be used to accommodate either the program or data. Use vakumpun tubes has been reduced in the EDVAC, and for the calculation can be done faster than the ENIAC. By using this technique it is possible for the computer may stop at some point and then went back to work. The main key is the architecture von.

Neumann is a central processing unit (CPU), which allows all the functions of the computer to be coordinated into a single source.
  • EDSAC (Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator)
  • EDSAC Computer introduced its mercury (mercury) in the tube to be able to save memory.
  • UNIVAC I (Universal Automatic Calculator)
Mauchly and Dr. Eckert UNIVACI created in 1951, this computer is a type of computer that can be used for commercial data processing and is the first commercial computer to use the von Neumann architecture model. UNIVAC computer was once owned by the United States Census Bureau and General Electric. UNIVAC has produced something that is impressive with its success in predicting victory Dwilight D. Eisenhower in the presidential election in 1952.

One of the characteristics of first generation computer operating instructions are made specifically for a particular task. In every computer there are different programs called "machine language" (machine language). This causes the computer is difficult to be programmed and the limits on the speed. One of the most prominent features of first generation computers was the use of vacuum tubes that made the form of a computer at that time were huge, while also using a magnetic cylinder in the process of data storage.

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